Buildings and other structures may be supported on the ground by several different types of foundations. Shallow foundations include the spread footings used around the perimeter of most buildings as well as the thicker and more rigid mat foundations used in certain difficult soil conditions. Deep foundations include cast-in-place-drilled piles, driven piles and micropiles.
Engineers evaluate the site geology and project requirements and provide recommendations regarding which type of foundation are appropriate. They also provide essential information for the design and construction of the foundations. Depending on the project, these parameters might include how much load the ground will support, how far footings should extend into the ground, sizing for deep piles, or how far apart piles should be placed.